Regulation (EU) 2021/821 of May 20, 2021 is known as the “Dual-Use Regulation” and its purpose is to establish an EU regime governing the export, brokering, technical assistance, transit and transfer of dual-use items. According to Article 9 of this regulation, EU Member States must, for reasons of public security (e.g. prevention of terrorism, protection of human rights), prohibit the export of dual-use items not listed in Annex I of the Dual-Use Regulation, or at the very least make any such export subject to an authorization requirement.

Given this legal requirement, Member States might decide to adopt a national control list of any such items and so on February 2, 2024the French Ministry of Economy published an order (arrêté) establishing a national list of dual-use items and technologies subject to prior authorization. The Ministry focuses on exports to third countries of goods and technologies related to quantum computing and its enabling technologies, as well as equipment for the design, development, production, testing and inspection of advanced electronic components.

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